An example of the complex way in which black functions in Motherwell’s oeuvre can be seen in his works relating to Spain such as Homage to Catalonia (1985), Iberia No. 30 (1969) and Elegy for the Spanish Republic 110E (1968). Black has multiple resonances in these works, reflecting both its cultural significance on the Iberian Peninsula and Motherwell’s response to the Spanish Civil War, a conflict that had a profound impact on the young artist. Indeed, Motherwell described his celebrated “Elegies” series as an “attempt to compose a subjective image of modern Spain. They are all in black and white: celebrations of death, songs of mourning, elegies—barbaric and severe,” according to Antje Quast’s 2003 article in Word and Image.