The 1960s set the stage for performance art, especially with the kooky happenings of
(in which he turned real women into living paintbrushes, by rolling them around on canvases and in smatterings of blue paint) and the experiential boundary-breaking of
. A new variety emerged in the 1970s, however, deconstructing time, space, place, and subject. It inserted the body as the material for artmaking—a notion that performance and feminist practitioner Abramović truly pioneered. In 1974, she unveiled Rhythm 0
, a six-hour piece in which she laid out 72 objects, including a gun and knife, which the audience was invited to use on her passively reposing body (recalling ’s Cut Piece
, first performed in 1964). In 1975, however, she upped the ante with her notorious performance Lips of Thomas
, where she lay atop blocks of ice, cutting and flagellating herself, pushing her body to its physical limits and gesturing toward the abuse that female bodies have been subject to throughout history.