Madonna’s 1990s hit “Vogue” was inspired by vogue dancers, whose model-like poses were in turn inspired by Vogue magazine. So when her music video for the song dropped, featuring scenes that appropriated a number of fashion photographer Horst P. Horst’s most iconic images from the magazine, none were more surprised than 83-year-old Horst, who was never asked for permission.
But it would have been too hard for the pop star to resist. Directed by David Fincher, the music video pictured Madonna paying homage to Hollywood actresses of the golden era—which is hardly possible without Horst, who famously photographed Marlene Dietrich, Rita Hayworth, Greta Garbo, Joan Crawford, Bette Davis, Katharine Hepburn, and the like. Freeze the frame of the video and you’ll find, at 4:26, Madonna dressed in a back-lacing corset à la the Detolle for Mainbocher corset in Horst’s most iconic image, Mainbocher Corset; at 2:47, she bears likeness to supermodel Lisa Fonssagrives in Lisa With Turban, and at 2:57, there’s no question she’s stepping in for Carmen Dell’Orefice in Carmen Face Massage.