Ben Aronson’s painterly urban landscapes combine photorealistic accuracy with gestural immediacy, portraying a world populated by urbane figures. Although the settings are more luxurious than Edward Hopper’s stark interiors, the figures often exude a similar sense of vulnerability, as in the solitary woman lost in contemplation in The Recollection (2008). Aronson makes the connection explicit with his Nighthawks (2008), an eponymous interpretation of Hopper’s original (1942) wherein an upscale cocktail bar replaces the dismal diner, reflecting America’s increased prosperity and hedonism. Along with the rewards of wealth, Aronson also explores the associated risks in “Wall Street,” a series depicting the world of high finance with its myriad connotations. In Volatility Index (2010) an armed U.S. soldier patrols Wall Street.