Trained as a calligrapher in Iran, Golnaz Fathi flouts the rules of her discipline in favor of highly expressive works. Fathi’s interest in calligraphy derives from the medium’s intention to match the visual beauty of a text with its content. Instead of communicating with words, Fathi pushes the gestural qualities of calligraphy beyond language, into abstraction. Her works repeat forms, creating a meditative quality. “The script becomes so abstract that the composition borrows from the minimal tendency,” she has said. “Like a journey of sorts, I take the words up and down, moving to different places that end nowhere.” Fathi’s work increasingly incorporates markings that recall Abstract Expressionism or Minimalism. Recent works have reduced the calligraphic gesture to detailed scratches on a field of white.