The expatriated José de Ribera was known in Italy as “Lo Spagnoletto” (or “the Little Spaniard”), in no small part for a painting style mixing Spanish realism and Carravaggio’s Tenebrism. De Ribera enjoyed the luxury of international patronage, from Spanish Royalty to the Roman Catholic Church. His early paintings were austere, gloomy, and dramatic, and often graphic or horrific; later works had softer tones and lighter color palettes. Throughout his career, he was commended for his ability to depict mental and physical suffering, with sensitivity for line and light. De Ribera’s contribution in Spanish Baroque painting inspired younger generations of artists, including Francisco de Zurbarán, Salvator Rosa, and Luca Giordano.