James McNeill Whistler, ‘The Pool’, 1859, Christopher-Clark Fine Art

Signature: Signed and dated in the plate lower left Whistler 1859.

Catalog: Kennedy 43 iv/iv; Glasgow 49 vi/vi; Mansfield 42; Grolier Club 42; Wedmore 41.

Literature regarding this artwork: Katherine Lochnan, Turner Whistler Monet, Tate Publishing, 2004, no. 29, p. 117 (ill.)

About James McNeill Whistler

James Abbott McNeill Whistler changed the course of art history with his radical techniques and adoption of Asian design principles, which emphasized a two-dimensional flattening of painted forms and their arrangement into abstract patterns. A London-based expatriate, Whistler embraced and promoted the doctrine that art should not serve narrative, but rather project the artist’s subjective feelings through the handling of the medium. His revolutionary methods changed existing approaches to oil paint, pastel, watercolor, etching—even interior design and the decorative arts. The flat, expressive, and radically simplified forms in his Venice pastels, and his use of fluid blue and gray pigments in his abstract nocturnes, altered how his contemporaries like Édouard Manet and Edgar Degas saw and understood art. He scandalously named one of his most famous paintings Arrangement in Grey and Black, No. 1 (1871), suggesting the reduction of a portrait of his mother to an arrangement of formal elements.

American, 1834-1903, Lowell, MA, United States, based in London, United Kingdom