How the Surrealist Movement Shaped the Course of Art History
Signature: Signed and faintly dated 'Wifredo Lam 1944' (lower left)
New York, Pierre Matisse Gallery, Lam, 6- 24 June 1944, no. 4.
San Francisco, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, New Directions in Modern Painting, July 1950, no. 13. Organized and circulated by the American Federation of the Arts, Washington, D.C.
Tokyo, The National Museum of Modern Art, Surrealism, 27 September-16 November 1975, no. 29. This exhibition also travelled to Kyoto, The National Museum of Modern Art, 26 November 1975-11 January 1976.
New York, The Studio Museum Harlem, Wifredo Lam and His Contemporaries 1938-1952, 6 December 1992-11 April 1993, no. 31.
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, The Patrick and Beatrice Haggerty Museum of Art, Marquette University, Wifredo Lam in North America, 11 October 2007-21 January 2008, no. 31. This is exhibition also travelled to Miami, Miami Art Museum, 8 February-18 May 2008; Long Beach, California, Museum of Latin American Art, 12 June-31 August 2008; St. Petersburg, Florida, Salvador Dalí Museum, 2 October 2008-10 January 2009.
Exhibition catalogue, Surrealism, Tokyo, The National Museum of Modern Art and Kyoto, The National Museum of Modern Art, 1975, no. 29 (illustrated in color).
Exhibition catalogue, Wifredo Lam and His Contemporaries 1938-1952, New York, The Studio Museum in Harlem, 1992, p. 119, no. 31 (illustrated in color).
L. Laurin-Lam and E. Lam, Wifredo Lam: Catalogue Raisonné of the Painted Work, Volume I, 1923-1960, Lausanne, Acatos, 1996, p. 350, no. 44.36 (illustrated).
Exhibition catalogue, Wifredo Lam in North America, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, The Patrick and Beatrice Haggerty Museum of Art, Marquette University, 2007, p. 105, no. 31 (illustrated in color).
Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York.
Private collection, Milan.
Libreria Dell’Oca, Rome.
Galerie Prazan-Fitoussi, Paris.
Galerie Pascal Lansberg, Paris.
Anon. sale, Christie's New York, 23 November 1993, lot 20 (illustrated in color).
Acquired from the above by the present owner.
A major early 20th-century painter, Wifredo Lam fused elements of Cubism and Surrealism with African culture in paintings that were exhibited alongside those of Pablo Picasso and other Cubists and Fauvists. A native Cuban, Lam hailed from Chinese, European, Indian, and mixed-African descent, and he was deeply influenced by African spiritual practices such as Santeria. He studied in Spain under the same teacher as Salvador Dalí and became a friend of Picasso after moving to Paris in 1938. After returning to Havana in 1941, Lam began producing paintings that were dominated by hybridized human-animal-vegetal figures. There he produced his most famous work, The Jungle (1943), which depicted four grotesque figures with mask-like faces emerging from dense vegetation, and has drawn comparisons with Picasso’s masterpiece Guernica (1937).
Cuban, 1902-1982, Sagua La Grande, Cuba, based in Cuba