Printmaking techniques that, unlike most others, produce editions of one instead of multiples. (However, sometimes a second and weaker impression, referred to as a “ghost”, can be pulled from the inked surface.) Though often used interchangeably, monoprinting, as seen in this Mel Bochner work, involves manipulating additional ink on an already etched and inked plate. Monotyping, coined as a term in the late 19th century and used by artists such as Edgar Degas and Jean Dubuffet, involves drawing or painting in ink on a smooth surface, then producing an exact reverse of the original drawing. Often in conjunction with other media, Degas reworked his “ghosts” with pastel or gouache, as seen in this café scene. Heralded for its spontaneity and freedom, as well as the painterly quality of its final images, monotyping straddles definitions of drawing, painting and printmaking.