Artworks and design objects that have a smooth, lustrous surface. Jeff Koons and Constantin Brancusi are among the artists most often associated with highly polished sculpture. An interest in sleek surfaces was, arguably, encouraged by the growth of the transportation industry in the early 20th century and the sheen of aerodynamic automobiles and planes. Brancusi’s reflective forms were meant to recall such industrially fabricated products, as well as contribute to the visual effect of works like [Bird in Space]. Koons’ polish—such as in his monumental balloon animals—has been associated with ideas of narcissism and newness, both consistent themes in his work.

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