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Not too long afterwards, representatives of Nazi Germany began to meet with the Katz brothers, seeking to purchase paintings and antiques. [...] On one occasion, Hermann Goering himself bought directly from Firma D. Katz after a terrifying in-person visit. [...] Under duress, Firma D. Katz had no choice but to sell the Artworks to Nazi agents. The Katz brothers feared deportation to concentration camps, reprisal, or wholesale seizure of their trading stock if they did not acquiesce and sell the Artworks. Even when Firma D. Katz was paid for the sales of the Artworks at issue under duress, prices were often below market value.