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Prague City Gallery – the second most significant art institution in the Czech Republic after the National Gallery in Prague – was established on 1 May 1963. It was assigned to collect, professionally protect, scientifically process and manage Czech art since 19th century.
The first impulse to establish Prague city picture gallery came from the art department of the newly founded Umělecká Beseda, headed by the painter Josef Mánes, in the 1860´s. The aim was not only to benefit the society but also to support contemporary artists. The City Council eventually began purchasing their works, albeit only occasionally. The collection of the Prague Municipal Government also gradually developed via donations from both individuals and institutions. It was significantly enriched at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The plans to establish a city gallery again intensified after the war, in the latter half of the 1950´s, and the National Committee of the City of Prague steadily purchased works from the current art exhibitions for the future art institution.