Artists: Viktor Pivovarov (1937), Nikita Alexeev (1953), Pavel Pepperstein (1966)
Moscow Conceptualism emerged as a genre in 1970 in the Soviet Union and served as an opposition to the official Soviet ideology.
If European conceptual artists use an object, photography or their own body as a medium, Moscow-based artists prefer paper. Moscow Conceptualism itself is a "paper Conceptualism", as it was called by Viktor Pivovarov.
In addition, the founders of Western conceptualism rejected the painting as the outdated bourgeois art form. Quite the controrary, Russian Conceptualists preserved the painting, but rather in a form of a stand.
Many artists who consider themselves a part of the Moscow Conceptualism movement were related to the work with book graphics. It is where the love for the written word has started.
It should be noted that the word and the text were accompanying each other since the antiquity. It is worth remembering Christian churches, icons, prints and miniatures, as well as Middle-Eastern masters. Moscow conceptualists artists use the word as a complement to the image, and often replace it with the word.